How to using S3 as a RWM/NFS-like store in Kubernetes

Let’s assume you have an application that runs happily on its own and is stateless. No problem. You deploy it onto Kubernetes and it works fine. You kill the pod and it respins, happily continuing where it left off.

Let’s add three replicas to the group. That also is fine, since its stateless.

Let’s now change that so that the application is now stateful and requires storage of where it is in between runs. So you pre-provision a disk using EBS and hook that up into the pods, and convert the deployment to a stateful set. Great, it still works fine. All three will pick up where they left off.

Now, what if we wanted to share the same state between the replicas?

For example, what if these three replicas were frontend boxes to a website? Having three different disks is a bad idea unless you can guarantee they will all have the same content. Even if you can, there’s guaranteed to be a case where one or more of the boxes will be either behind or ahead of the other boxes, and consequently have a case where one or more of the boxes will serve the wrong version of content.

There are several options for shared storage, NFS is the most logical but requires you to pre-provision a disk that will be used and also to either have an NFS server outside the cluster or create an NFS pod within the cluster. Also, you will likely over-provision your disk here (100GB when you only need 20GB for example)

Another alternative is EFS, which is Amazon’s NFS storage, where you mount an NFS and only pay for the amount of storage you use. However, even when creating a filesystem in a public subnet, you get a private IP which is useless if you are not DirectConnected into the VPC.

Another option is S3, but how do you use that short of using “s3 sync” repeatedly?

One answer is through the use of s3fs and sshfs

We use s3fs to mount the bucket into a pod (or pods), then we can use those mounts via sshfs as an NFS-like configuration.

The downside to this setup is the fact it will be slower than locally mounted disks.

So here’s the yaml for the s3fs pods (change values within {…} where applicable) — details at Docker Hub here: https://hub.docker.com/r/blenderfox/s3fs/

(and yes, I could convert the environment variables into secrets and reference those, and I might do a follow up article for that)

---
kind: Deployment
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
metadata:
  name: s3fs
  namespace: default
  labels:
    k8s-app: s3fs
  annotations: {}
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: s3fs
  template:
    metadata:
      name: s3fs
      labels:
        k8s-app: s3fs
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: s3fs
        image: blenderfox/s3fs
        env:
        - name: S3_BUCKET
          value: {...}
        - name: S3_REGION
          value: {...}
        - name: AWSACCESSKEYID
          value: {...}
        - name: AWSSECRETACCESSKEY
          value: {...}
        - name: REMOTEKEY
          value: {...}
        - name: BUCKETUSERPASSWORD
          value: {...}
        resources: {}
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        securityContext:
          privileged: true
      restartPolicy: Always
      terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 30
      dnsPolicy: ClusterFirst
      securityContext: {}
      schedulerName: default-scheduler
  strategy:
    type: RollingUpdate
    rollingUpdate:
      maxUnavailable: 25%
      maxSurge: 25%
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  progressDeadlineSeconds: 600
---
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: s3-service
  annotations:
    external-dns.alpha.kubernetes.io/hostname: {hostnamehere}
service.beta.kubernetes.io/aws-load-balancer-connection-idle-timeout: "3600"
  labels:
    name: s3-service
spec:
  ports:
  - protocol: TCP
    name: ssh
    port: 22
    targetPort: 22
  selector:
    k8s-app: s3fs
  type: LoadBalancer
  sessionAffinity: None
  externalTrafficPolicy: Cluster

This will create a service and a pod

If you have external DNS enabled, the hostname will be added to Route 53.

SSH into the service and verify you can access the bucket mount

ssh bucketuser@dns-name ls -l /mnt/bucket/

(This should give you the listing of the bucket and also should have user:group set on the directory as “bucketuser”)

You should also be able to rsync into the bucket using this

rsync -rvhP /source/path bucketuser@dns-name:/mnt/bucket/

Or sshfs using a similar method


sshfs bucketuser@dns-name:/mnt/bucket/ /path/to/local/mountpoint

Edit the connection timeout annotation if needed

Now, if you set up a pod that has three replicas and all three sshfs to the same service, you essentially have an NFS-like storage.

 

How to move from single master to multi-master in an AWS kops kubernetes cluster

Having a master in a Kubernetes cluster is all very well and good, but if that master goes down the entire cluster cannot schedule new work. Pods will continue to run, but new ones cannot be scheduled and any pods that die will not get rescheduled.

Having multiple masters allows for more resiliency and can pick up when one goes down. However, as I found out, setting multi-master was quite problematic. Using the guide here only provided some help so after trashing my own and my company’s test cluster, I have expanded on the linked guide.

First add the subnet details for the new zone into your cluster definition — CIDR, subnet id, and make sure you name it something that you can remember. For simplicity, I called mine eu-west-2c. If you have a definition for utility (and you will if you use a bastion), make sure you have a utility subnet also defined for the new AZ

kops edit cluster --state s3://bucket

Now, create your master instance groups, you need an odd number to enable quorum and avoid split brain (I’m not saying prevent, and there are edge cases where this could be possible even with quorum). I’m going to add west-2b and west-2c. AWS recently introduced the third London AWS zone, so I’m going to use that.

kops create instancegroup master-eu-west-2b --subnet eu-west-2b --role Master

Make this one have a max/min of 1

kops create instancegroup master-eu-west-2c --subnet eu-west-2c --role Master

Make this one have a max/min of 0 (yes, zero) for now

Reference these in your cluster config

kops edit cluster --state=s3://bucket
  etcdClusters:
  - etcdMembers:
    - instanceGroup: master-eu-west-2a
      name: a
    - instanceGroup: master-eu-west-2b
      name: b
    - instanceGroup: master-eu-west-2c
      name: c
    name: main
  - etcdMembers:
    - instanceGroup: master-eu-west-2a
      name: a
    - instanceGroup: master-eu-west-2b
      name: b
    - instanceGroup: master-eu-west-2c
      name: c
    name: events

Start the new master

kops update cluster --state s3://bucket --yes

Find the etcd and etcd-event pods and add them to this script. Change “clustername” to the name of your cluster, then run it. Confirm the member lists include both two members (in my case it would be etc-a and etc-b)

ETCPOD=etcd-server-events-ip-10-10-10-226.eu-west-2.compute.internal
ETCEVENTSPOD=etcd-server-ip-10-10-10-226.eu-west-2.compute.internal
AZ=b
CLUSTER=clustername

kubectl --namespace=kube-system exec $ETCPOD -- etcdctl member add etcd-$AZ http://etcd-$AZ.internal.$CLUSTER:2380

kubectl --namespace=kube-system exec $ETCEVENTSPOD -- etcdctl --endpoint http://127.0.0.1:4002 member add etcd-events-$AZ http://etcd-events-$AZ.internal.$CLUSTER:2381

echo Member Lists
kubectl --namespace=kube-system exec $ETCPOD -- etcdctl member list

kubectl --namespace=kube-system exec $ETCEVENTSPOD -- etcdctl --endpoint http://127.0.0.1:4002 member list

(NOTE: the cluster will break at this point due to the missing second cluster member)

Wait for the master to show as initialised. Find the instance id of the master and put it into this script. Change the AWSSWITCHES to match any switches you need to provide to the awscli. For me, I specify my profile and region

The script will run and output the status of the instance until it shows “ok”

AWSSWITCHES="--profile personal --region eu-west-2"
INSTANCEID=master2instanceid
while [ "$(aws $AWSSWITCHES ec2 describe-instance-status --instance-id=$INSTANCEID --output text  | grep SYSTEMSTATUS | cut -f 2)" != "ok" ]
do
  sleep 5s
  aws $AWSSWITCHES ec2 describe-instance-status --instance-id=$INSTANCEID --output text  | grep SYSTEMSTATUS | cut -f 2
done
aws $AWSSWITCHES ec2 describe-instance-status --instance-id=$INSTANCEID --output text  | grep SYSTEMSTATUS | cut -f 2

ssh into the new master (or via bastion if needed)

sudo -i
systemctl stop kubelet
systemctl stop protokube

edit /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd.manifest and /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd-events.manifest
Change the ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE value from new to existing
Under ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER remove the third master definition

Stop the etcd docker containers

docker stop $(docker ps | grep "etcd" | awk '{print $1}')

Run this a few times until you get a docker error saying you need more than one container name
There are two volumes mounted under /mnt/master-vol-xxxxxxxx, one contains /var/etcd/data-events/member/ and one contains /var/etcd/data/member/ but it varies because of the id.

rm -r /mnt/var/master-vol-xxxxxx/var/etcd/data-events/member/
rm -r /mnt/var/master-vol-xxxxxx/var/etcd/data/member/

Now start kubelet

systemctl start kubelet

Wait until the master shows on the validate list then start protokube

systemctl start protokube

Now do the same with the third master

edit the third master ig to make it min/max 1

kops edit ig master-eu-west-2c --name=clustername --state s3://bucket

Add it to the clusters (the etcd pods should still be running)

ETCPOD=etcd-server-events-ip-10-10-10-226.eu-west-2.compute.internal
ETCEVENTSPOD=etcd-server-ip-10-10-10-226.eu-west-2.compute.internal
AZ=c
CLUSTER=clustername

kubectl --namespace=kube-system exec $ETCPOD -- etcdctl member add etcd-$AZ http://etcd-$AZ.internal.$CLUSTER:2380
kubectl --namespace=kube-system exec $ETCEVENTSPOD -- etcdctl --endpoint http://127.0.0.1:4002 member add etcd-events-$AZ http://etcd-events-$AZ.internal.$CLUSTER:2381

echo Member Lists
kubectl --namespace=kube-system exec $ETCPOD -- etcdctl member list
kubectl --namespace=kube-system exec $ETCEVENTSPOD -- etcdctl --endpoint http://127.0.0.1:4002 member list

Start the third master

kops update cluster --name=cluster-name --state=s3://bucket

Wait for the master to show as initialised. Find the instance id of the master and put it into this script. Change the AWSSWITCHES to match any switches you need to provide to the awscli. For me, I specify my profile and region

The script will run and output the status of the instance until it shows “ok”

AWSSWITCHES="--profile personal --region eu-west-2"
INSTANCEID=master3instanceid
while [ "$(aws $AWSSWITCHES ec2 describe-instance-status --instance-id=$INSTANCEID --output text  | grep SYSTEMSTATUS | cut -f 2)" != "ok" ]
do
  sleep 5s
  aws $AWSSWITCHES ec2 describe-instance-status --instance-id=$INSTANCEID --output text  | grep SYSTEMSTATUS | cut -f 2
done
aws $AWSSWITCHES ec2 describe-instance-status --instance-id=$INSTANCEID --output text  | grep SYSTEMSTATUS | cut -f 2

ssh into the new master (or via bastion if needed)

sudo -i
systemctl stop kubelet
systemctl stop protokube

edit /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd.manifest and /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd-events.manifest
Change the ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE value from new to existing

We DON’T need to remove the third master defintion this time, since this is the third master

Stop the etcd docker containers

docker stop $(docker ps | grep "etcd" | awk '{print $1}')

Run this a few times until you get a docker error saying you need more than one container name
There are two volumes mounted under /mnt/master-vol-xxxxxxxx, one contains /var/etcd/data-events/member/ and one contains /var/etcd/data/member/ but it varies because of the id.

rm -r /mnt/var/master-vol-xxxxxx/var/etcd/data-events/member/
rm -r /mnt/var/master-vol-xxxxxx/var/etcd/data/member/

Now start kubelet

systemctl start kubelet

Wait until the master shows on the validate list then start protokube

systemctl start protokube

If the cluster validates, do a full respin

kops rolling-update cluster --name clustername --state s3://bucket  --force --yes

Guide to creating a Kubernetes Cluster in existing subnets & VPC on AWS with kops

This article is a guide on how to setup a Kubernetes cluster in AWS using kops and plugging it into your own subnets and VPC. We attempt to minimise the external IPs used in this method.

Export your AWS API keys into environment variables

export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID='YOUR_KEY'
export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY='YOUR_ACCESS_KEY'
export CLUSTER_NAME="my-cluster-name"
export VPC="vpc-xxxxxx"
export K8SSTATE="s3-k8sstate"</pre>

Create the cluster (you can change some of these switches to match your requirements. I would suggest only using one worker node and one master node to begin with and then increase them once you have confirmed the config is good. The more workers and master nodes you have, the longer it will take to run a rolling-update.

kops create cluster --cloud aws --name $CLUSTER_NAME --state s3://$K8SSTATE --node-count 1 --zones eu-west-1a,eu-west-1b,eu-west-1c --node-size t2.micro --master-size t2.micro --master-zoneseu-west-1a,eu-west-1b,eu-west-1c --ssh-public-key ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub --topology=private --networking=weave --associate-public-ip=false --vpc $VPC

Important note: There must be an ODD number of master zones. If you tell kops to use an even number zones for master, it will complain.

If you want to use additional security groups, don’t add them yet — add them after you have confirmed the cluster is working.

Internal IPs: You must have a VPN connection into your VPC or you will not be able to ssh into the instances. The alternative is to use the bastion functionality using the --bastion flag with the create command. Then doing this:

ssh -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa -o ProxyCommand='ssh -W %h:%p admin@bastion.$CLUSTER_NAME' admin@INTERNAL_MASTER_IP

However, if you do this method, you MUST then use public IP addressing on the api load balancer, as you will not be able to do kops validate otherwise.

Edit the cluster

kops edit cluster $CLUSTER_NAME --state=s3://$K8SSTATE

Make the following changes:

If you have a VPN connection into the VPC, change spec.api.loadBalancer.type to “Internal“, otherwise, leave it as “Public
Change spec.subnets to match your private subnets. To use existing private subnets, they should also include the id of the subnet and match the CIDR range, e.g.:

subnets:
- cidr: 10.10.10.0/23
  id: subnet-xxxxxxx
  name: eu-west-1a
  type: Private
  zone: eu-west-1a</pre>

The utility subnet is where the Bastion hosts will be placed, and these should be in a public subnet, since they will be the inbound route into the cluster from the internet.

If you need to change or add specific IAM permissions, add them under spec.additionalPolicies like this to add additional policies to the node IAM policy (apologies about the formatting. WordPress is doing something weird to it.)

additionalPolicies:
  node: | 
    [ 
      {  
        "Effect": "Allow", 
        "Action": ["dynamodb:*"],
        "Resource": ["*"] 
      },  
      {  
        "Effect": "Allow",  
        "Action": ["es:*"],     
        "Resource": ["*"]     
      }    
    ]

Edit the bastion, nodes, and master configs (MASTER_REGION is the zone where you placed the master. If you are running a multi-region master config, you’ll have to do this for each region)

kops edit ig master-{MASTER_REGION} --name=$CLUSTER_NAME --state s3://$K8SSTATE

kops edit ig nodes --name=$CLUSTER_NAME --state s3://$K8SSTATE
kops edit ig bastions --name=$CLUSTER_NAME --state s3://$K8SSTATE

Check and make any updates.

If you want a mixture of instance types (e.g. t2.mediums and r3.larges), you’ll need to separate these using new instance groups ($SUBNETS is the subnets where you want the nodes to appear — for example, you can provide a list “eu-west-2a,eu-west-2b)

kops create ig anothernodegroup --state s3://$K8SSTATE --subnets $SUBNETS

You can later delete this with

kops delete ig anothernodegroup --state s3://$K8SSTATE

If you want to use spot prices, add this under the spec section (x.xx is the price you want to bid):

maxPrice: "x.xx"

Check the instance size and count if you want to change them (I would recommend not changing the node count just yet)

If you want to add tags to the instances (for example for billing), add something like this to the spec section:

cloudLabels:
  Billing: product-team</pre>

If you want to run some script(s) at node startup (cloud-init), add them to spec.additionalUserData:

spec:
  additionalUserData:
  - name: myscript.sh
    type: text/x-shellscript
    content: |
      #!/bin/sh
      echo "Hello World.  The time is now $(date -R)!" | tee /root/output.txt

Apply the update:

kops update cluster $CLUSTER_NAME --state s3://$K8SSTATE --yes

Wait for DNS to propagate and then validate

kops validate cluster --state s3://$K8SSTATE

Once the cluster returns ready, apply the Kubernetes dashboard

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/master/src/deploy/alternative/kubernetes-dashboard.yaml

Access the dashboard via

https://api.$CLUSTER_NAME/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/kubernetes-dashboard/proxy/

also try:

https://api.$CLUSTER_NAME/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/https:kubernetes-dashboard:/proxy/

If the first doesn’t work

(ignore the cert error)

Username is “admin” and the password is found from your local ~/.kube/config

Add the External DNS update to allow you to give friendly names to your externally-exposed services rather than the horrible elb names.

See here: https://github.com/kubernetes-incubator/external-dns/blob/master/docs/tutorials/aws.md

(You can apply the yaml directly onto the cluster via the dashboard. Make sure you change the filter to match your domain or subdomain. )

Note that if you use this, you’ll need to change the node IAM policy on the cluster config as the default IAM policy won’t allow the External DNS container to modify Route 53 entries, and also annotate (use kubectl annotate $service_name key:value) your service with text such as:

external-dns.alpha.kubernetes.io/hostname: $SERVICE_NAME.$CLUSTERNAME

And also you might need this annotation, to make the ELB internal rather than public – otherwise Kubernetes will complain “Error creating load balancer (will retry): Failed to ensure load balancer for service namespace/service: could not find any suitable subnets for creating the ELB”

service.beta.kubernetes.io/aws-load-balancer-internal: 0.0.0.0/0

(Optional) Add the Cockpit pod to your cluster as described here

http://cockpit-project.org/guide/133/feature-kubernetes.html

It will allow you to visually see a topology of your cluster at a cluster and also provides some management features too. For example, here’s my cluster. It contains 5 nodes (1 master, 4 workers and is running 4 services (Kubernetes, external-dns, cockpit, and dashboard). Cockpit creates a replication controller so it knows about the changes.

chrome_2018-01-14_15-44-00

Add any additional security groups by adding this under the spec section of the node/master/bastions config, then do a rolling-update (you might need to use the --force switch), do this as soon as you can after creating and verifying the cluster updates work.

additionalSecurityGroups:
- sg-xxxxxxxx
- sg-xxxxxxxx

If the cluster breaks after this (i.e. the nodes haven’t shown up on the master), reboot the server (don’t terminate, use the reboot option from the AWS console), and see if that helps. If it still doesn’t show up, there’s something wrong with the security groups attached — i.e. they’re conflicting somehow with the Kubernetes access. Remove those groups and then do another rolling-update but use both the --force and --cloudonly switches to force a “dirty” respin.

If the cluster comes up good, then you can change the node counts on the configs and apply the update.

Note that if you change the node count and then apply the update, the cluster attempts to make the update without rolling-update. For example, if you change the node count from 1 to 3, the cluster attempts to bring up the 2 additional nodes.

Other things you can look at:

Kompose – which converts a docker-compose configuration into Kubernetes resources

Finally, have fun!

Tinkering with Kubernetes and AWS

 

This article just goes through my tinkering with Kubernetes on AWS.

Create a new S3 bucket to store the state of your Kubernetes clusters

aws s3 mb s3://k8sstate --region eu-west-2

Verify

aws s3 ls

Create a Route 53 hosted zone. I’m creating k8stest.blenderfox.uk

aws route53 create-hosted-zone --name k8stest.blenderfox.uk \
--caller-reference $(uuidgen)

dig the nameservers for the hosted zone you created

dig NS k8stest.blenderfox.uk

If your internet connection already has DNS setup to the hosted zone, you’ll see the nameservers in the output:

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;k8stest.blenderfox.uk.     IN  NS

;; ANSWER SECTION:
k8stest.blenderfox.uk. 172800 IN NS ns-1353.awsdns-41.org.
k8stest.blenderfox.uk. 172800 IN NS ns-1816.awsdns-35.co.uk.
k8stest.blenderfox.uk. 172800 IN NS ns-404.awsdns-50.com.
k8stest.blenderfox.uk. 172800 IN NS ns-644.awsdns-16.net.

 

Export your AWS credentials as environment variables (I’ve found Kubernetes doesn’t reliably pick up the credentials from the aws cli especially if you have multiple profiles

export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID='your key here'
export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY='your secret access key here'

You can also add it to a bash script and source it.

Create the cluster using kops. Note that the master zones must have an odd count (1, 3, etc.) since eu-west-2 only has two zones (a and b), I have to have only one zone here

kops create cluster --cloud aws --name cluster.k8stest.blenderfox.uk \
--state s3://k8sstate --node-count 3 --zones eu-west-2a,eu-west-2b \
--node-size m4.large --master-size m4.large \
--master-zones eu-west-2a \
--ssh-public-key ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub \
--master-volume-size 50 \
--node-volume-size 50 \
--topology private

You can also add the --kubernetes-version switch to specifically pick a Kubernetes version to include in the cluster. Recognised versions are shown at

https://github.com/kubernetes/kops/blob/master/channels/stable

TL;DL: Bands are:

  • >=1.4.0 and <1.5.0
  • >=1.5.0 and <1.6.0
  • >=1.6.0 and <1.7.0
  • >=1.7.0

Each with their own Debian image.

 

Assuming the create completed successfully, update the cluster so it pushes the update out to your cloud

kops update cluster cluster.k8stest.blenderfox.uk --yes \
--state s3://k8sstate

While the cluster starts up, all the new records will be set up with placeholder IPs.

Selection_004

NOTE: Kubernetes needs an externally resolvable DNS name. Basically, you need to be able to create a hosted zone on a domain you control. You can’t use Kops on a domain you can’t control, even if you hack the resolver config.

The cluster can take a while to come up. Use

kops validate cluster --state s3://k8sstate

To check the cluster state.

When ready, you’ll see something like this:

Using cluster from kubectl context: cluster.k8stest.blenderfox.co.uk

Validating cluster cluster.k8stest.blenderfox.co.uk

INSTANCE GROUPS
NAME                    ROLE    MACHINETYPE     MIN     MAX     SUBNETS
master-eu-west-2a       Master  m4.large        1       1       eu-west-2a
nodes                   Node    m4.large        3       3       eu-west-2a,eu-west-2b

NODE STATUS
NAME                                            ROLE    READY
ip-172-20-35-51.eu-west-2.compute.internal      master  True
ip-172-20-49-10.eu-west-2.compute.internal  node    True
ip-172-20-72-100.eu-west-2.compute.internal     node    True
ip-172-20-91-236.eu-west-2.compute.internal     node    True

Your cluster cluster.k8stest.blenderfox.co.uk is ready

Now you can start interacting with the cluster. First thing is to deploy the Kubernetes dashboard

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/master/src/deploy/alternative/kubernetes-dashboard.yaml
 serviceaccount "kubernetes-dashboard" created
 role "kubernetes-dashboard-minimal" created
 rolebinding "kubernetes-dashboard-minimal" created
 deployment "kubernetes-dashboard" created
 service "kubernetes-dashboard" created

Now setup a proxy to the api

$ kubectl proxy
Starting to serve on 127.0.0.1:8001

Next, access

http://localhost:8001/ui

To get the dashboard

Now let’s create a job to deploy on to the cluster.

Uploading (and Resuming) videos to YouTube via GoogleCL and AWS – Updated 15th Dec

If you are like me, and have a slow and/or unreliable internet connection, trying to upload any reasonably-sized video to YouTube can be a nightmare, forcing you to have your computer on for hours on end, and then finding your upload failed because your connection dropped, and then having to start all over again.

Well, one way to have resume protection is to use a middle-point, which is Amazon Web Services, or a similar cloud-based provider, then using that to upload to YouTube. Since the connection between the cloud system and YouTube is likely to be more reliable (and faster) than your connection, the upload from the cloud system to YouTube will be faster.

The first step is to setup and start an instance on AWS. I am using the Ubuntu image.

SSH into the instance and install supporting packages via apt-get or aptitude. Make sure you change the IP (xx.xx.xx.xx) and the key (AWS_Ireland.pem) to match your files.

$ ssh -o IdentityFile=/home/user/.ssh/AWS_Ireland.pem ubuntu@xx.xx.xx.xx

$ sudo apt-get install python-gdata python-support rsync

Then download the latest googlecl deb file from https://code.google.com/p/googlecl/downloads/list

$ wget https://googlecl.googlecode.com/files/googlecl_0.9.14-2_all.deb

Now, install the deb file using dpkg

$ sudo dpkg -i googlecl_0.9.14-2_all.deb

We can now start using the Google services, but first we need to authenticate. This is normally done via a browser, but since we are in a terminal, we skip this.

$ google youtube list
Please specify user: [enter your email address here]

You will see a text-version of the login page. Don’t bother entering your values. Just press ‘q’ to quit and confirm exit. Then, you’ll see in the terminal window, a url along the lines of this:

Please log in and/or grant access via your browser at:
https://www.google.com/accounts/OAuthAuthorizeToken?oauth_token={hidden}&hd=default

Go to that url and sign in. Then, come back to the console and press enter. If all goes well, you should see your video uploads in the console window.

Now, to upload a video to the AWS instance. You can use rsync for that, and the command to enter into your local terminal is as follows (change the key file to match yours and the IP address field to match your instance’s IP):

rsync -vhPz --compress-level=9 -e "ssh -o IdentityFile=/home/user/.ssh/AWS_Ireland.pem" source ubuntu@{EC2_IP}:.

This uploads the video called “source” onto your EC2 instance at the home folder of the default user (if you have another location in your instance, use that here). Rsync will allow you to resume uploads via the P switch. When the rsync command successfully completes, you can then SSH back onto the instance, and use the “google youtube post” command to upload your video onto YouTube.

NOTE: On some large files, rsync breaks on resuming with the error message “broken pipe”, if this happens to you, see this page (specifically, Q3).

Once your video is uploaded to your EC2 instance, you can then upload that video to YouTube by using this:

$ google youtube post path/to/video
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